In the year 1951 four young men, driven by a vision conceptualized, created and constituted India's first ever neurological society. Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B. Ramamurthi, Dr. S.T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh brought all the disciplines associated with the science of neurology under one roof and into the forefront with the Neurological Society of India. The society appointed Dr. Jacob Chandy as its first President. The first meeting was held in Hyderabad in March 1952.

By March 1952, when the society had its first meeting in Hyderabad, it had on record a total of 30 members from all over the country and the first presidential address was aptly titled "Neurology Comes to Life". It was at this meeting, the society decided to publish its own journal dedicated to the Neurosciences titled "Neurology". The journal was subsequently renamed as "Neurology India" in 1953.

Till 1963 the Society held its annual meetings with the Association of Physicians of India. From 1964 the Neurological Society of India started to have independent annual meetings and created the sub-section of Neurology, Neurosurgery, Neuropathology and Neuroradiology in the society. In 1972, the society formed a sub-committee for standardization of Postgraduate Education in the country. The Society is registered with the Charity Commissioner, Public Trusts Registration Office, Greater Bombay Region (No. F-1819 (B) dated 25th October 1969).

In 1974 the Society decided to hold a Continuing Medical Education (C.M.E) Program to be held along with the annual conference with the intention of providing updates on selected topics and encouraging interdisciplinary interaction among trainees in the various branches of the Neurological Sciences. In 1977, the society became the first ever medical professional society in the country to conduct the first CME organized by Dr. S. Kalyanaraman.

In 1979, NSI founded a new association, the "Society of Indian Neurosciences Nurses (SINN)" in India, with the main objective to set a high standard of neuro-nursing in the country. The conference of the association since then is conducted annually along with the annual conference of NSI.

The society has various Oration in honor of its eminent members. In 1969 the Society instituted the Dr. Jacob Chandy Oration, and in 1974 it instituted a second oration, the Dr. B. Ramamurthi Oration. The Society instituted the third oration named Dr. R.G. Ginde Oration in 1988, the first lecture of which started in 1990.

The NSI has an affiliation with the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies, The World Federation of Neurology, The International Society of Neuropathology, The International Federation of Societies for Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. Presently the society has over 2500 members and has been involved in organizing various seminars and conferences to initiate interaction among its members. The society also organizes various awareness program and workshop for the benefit of its members and society at large. The 70th Annual Meeting of NSI is scheduled to be held in Agra from 08-11 December 2022.

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